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ABBREVIATIONS

c.=cup
lb.=pound
oz.=ounce
pkg.=package
pt.=pint
qt.=quart
tbsp.=tablespooon
tsp.=teaspoon

EQUIVALENCY CHART

3 tsp.1 tbsp.
2 tbsp.1/8 c.
4 tbsp.¼ c.
8 tbsp.½ c.
16 tbsp.1 c.
5 tbsp. + 1 tsp.1/3 c.
12 tbsp.¾ c.
4 oz.½ c.
8 oz.1 c.
16 oz.1 lb.
1 oz.2 tbsp. fat or liquid
2 c.1 pt.
8 to 10 egg whites1 c.
12 to 14 egg yolks1 c.
1 lemon3 tbsp. juice
1 orange1/3 c. juice
2 pt.1 qt.
1 qt.4 c.
4 qt.1 gallon
2 c. fat1 lb.
1 lb. butter2 c. or 4 sticks
2 c. sugar1 lb.
2-2/3 c. powdered sugar1 lb.
2-2/3 c. brown sugar1 lb.
4 c. sifted flower1 lb.
4 oz. (1-1-1/4 c.) uncooked macaroni2-1/4 c. cooked
2 oz. uncooked spaghetti4 c. cooked
4 oz. (1-1/2-2 c.) uncooked noodles2 c. cooked
28 saltine crackers1 c. crumbs
4 slices bread1 c. crumbs

SUBSTITUTIONS FOR MISSING INGREDIENTS

1 tbsp. cornstarch for thickening2 tbsp. flour
1 tsp. baking powder¼ tsp. baking soda plus ½ tsp. cream of tartar
1 c. sour milk1 cup sweet milk into which 1 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice has been stirred; or 1 c. buttermilk (let stand 5 minutes)
1 c. sweet milk1 c. sour milk or buttermilk plus ½ tsp. baking soda
¾ c. cracker crumbs1 c. bread crumbs
1 c. heavy sour cream1/3 c. butter and 2/3 c. milk in any sour milk recipe
1 tsp. dried herbs1 tbsp. fresh herbs
½ c. whole milk½ c. evaporated milk + ½ c. water or 1 c. reconstituted nonfat dry milk + 1 tbsp. butter
1 pkg. active dry yeast1 cake compressed yeast
1 tbsp. instant minced onion, dehydrated1 small fresh onion
1 tbsp. prepared mustard1 tsp. dry mustard
1/8 tsp. garlic powder1 small pressed clove of garlic
3 c. dry cornflakes1 c. crushed cornflakes
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